Minggu, Januari 16, 2011

Jenis -jenis teks dalam Bahasa Inggris (genre)

Jenis -jenis teks dalam Bahasa Inggris (genre)
1.      Narrative
Snow White
Once upon a time there lived a little girl named Snow White. She lived with her Aunt and Uncle because her parents were dead.
Major Complication
One day she heard that her Uncle and Aunt talking about leaving Snow White in the castle because they wanted to go to America and then they didn’t have enough money to take Snow White.
Snow White didn’t want her Uncle and Aunt to do this so she decided it, would be best if she run away from home if her Aunt and Uncle were having breakfast. She ran away into the woods.
She was tired and hungry.
Then she saw this little cottage. She knocked but no one answered so she went inside and fell asleep.
Meanwhile, the seven dwarfs were coming home work. They went inside. There they found Snow white sleeping, Then Snow White woke up. She saw the dwarfs. The dwarfs said, “What is your name?” Snow White said, “My name is Snow White.”
Major Resolution
One Dwarf said, “If you wish, you may live here with us”. Snow White said, “Oh…Could I? Thank you.” Then Snow White told the dwarfs whole story and Snow White and the seven dwarfs lived happily ever after.

Social Function
Generic Structure
Significant Lexicogrammatical features
To amuse, entertain and to deal with actual or vicarious experience in different ways. Narratives deal with problematic events which lead to a crisis turning point of some kind which turn finds a resolution.
·         Orientation: Sets the scenes and introduces the participants.
·         Evaluation: a steeping back to evaluate the plight.
·         Complication: a crisis arises.
·         Resolution’ The crisis is resolved, for better or for worse.
·         Re-Orientation: optional
·         Focus and specific and usually individualized participants.
·         Use of materials processes (and in this text, Behavioral and Verbal processes).
·         Use of relational processes and mental processes.
·         Use of temporal conjunctions and temporal circumstances.
·         Use of past tense.

2.      Recount
I was driving along the coast road when the car suddenly lurched to one side.
Event 1
At first I thought a tyre had gone but when I saw telegraph poles collapsing like matchsticks. 
Event 2
The rocks came tumbling across the road and I had to abandon the car.
Event 3
When I got back to town, well, as I said, there wasn’t much left.
Note: young writer often indicate temporal sequence with “and then, and then”. Alternatives can be modelled and used when the teacher and students jointly construct recount.
Social Function
Generic Structure
Significant Lexicogrammatical features
To retell events for the purpose of informing or entertaining.
·         Orientation: Provides the setting and introduction.
·         Event: tell what happened in sequence.
·         Re-Orientation: optional closure of events.
·         Focus in specific participants.
·         Use of material processes
·         Circumstances of time and place.
·         Use of past tense.
·         Focus of temporal sconces.

3.      News Item
Town ‘Contaminated’
Newsworthy Events
Moscow – A Russian journalist has uncovered evidences of another Soviet nuclear catastrophe, which killed 10 sailors and contaminated an entire town.
Background Events
Yalena Vazrshavskya is the first journalist to speak to people who witnessed the explosion of a nuclear submarine at the nayal base of shkjove – 2 near Vladivostock.

The accident, which occurred 13 month before the Chernobyl disaster, spread radioactive fall out over the base nearby town, but was covered up by officials of the Soviet Union. Residents were told the explosion in the reactor of the victor-class submarine during a refit had been a ‘thermal’ and not a nuclear explosion. And those involved in the clean up operation to remove more than 600 tones of contaminated material were sworn to secrecy.
A board of investigators was later to describe it as the worst accident in the history of the Soviet Navy.

Social Function
Generic Structure
Significant Lexicogrammatical features
To inform readers, listeners or viewers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important.
·         Newsworthy Event (s) recounts the event in summary form.
·         Background events elaborate want happened, to whom, in what circumstances.
·         Sources comments by participants in witnesses to and authorities expert of the events.
·         Short, telegraphic information about story captured in headline.
·         Use of Material Processes to retell the event (in the text below, many of material-processes are nominalised).
·         Use of projecting verbal processes in sources stage.
·         Focus in circumstances (e.g. mostly within qualifiers).

4.      Description
Natural Bridge national Park
Natural Bridge National Park is a luscious tropical rainforest.
It is located 110 kilometres south of Brisbane and is reached by following the pacific Highway to Nerang and then by travelling through the Numinbah Valley. This scenic roadway lies in the shadow of the Lamington National Park.

The phenomenon of the rock formed into a natural arch and the cave through which is waterfall cascades is a short 1 kilometre walk below a dense rainforest canopy from the main picnic area. Swimming is permitted in the rock poles. Night time visitors to the cave will discover the unique feature of the glow worms.

Picnic areas offer toilets, barbecues, shelter sheds, water and fireplaces: however, overnight camping is not permitted.

Social Function
Generic Structure
Significant Lexicogrammatical features
To describe a particular person, place or thing.
·         Identification: identifies phenomenon to be described.
·         Description:  describes parts qualities caracterizations.
·         Focus in specific participants.
·         Use of attributes and identifying processes.
·         Frequent, use of Epithets and Classifiers in nominal groups.
·         Use of Simple Present Tense.
5.      Report
General Classification
Whales are sea-living mammals.
(behaviours, qualities, parts)
They therefore breather air but cannot survive on land. Some species are very large indeed and blue whales, which can exceed 30 m in length, is the largest animal to have lived on earth. Superficially, the whale looks rather like a fish, but there are important differences in its external structure. Its tall consist a pair of abroad, flat, horizontal paddles (the tall of a fish is vertical) and it has a single nostril on top of its large, broad head. The skin is smooth and shiny and beneath it lies a layer of fat (blubber). This is up to 30 cm in thickness and serves to conserve heat and body fluids.   

Social Function
Generic Structure
Significant Lexicogrammatical features
To describe the way things are with reference to a range of natural, man made and social phenomena in our environment.
·         General Classification tells what the phenomenon under discussion is.
·         Description tells what the phenomenon under discussion is like in terms of
(1)   Parts
(2)   Qualities
(3)   Habits or behaviours, if living.
·         Focus on generic participants.
·         Use of relational processes to state what is and that which it is.
·         Use of simple present tense (unless extinct).
·         No temporal sequence.

6.      Explanation
A Brief Summary of Speech Production
General Statement to Position the Readers
Speech production is made possible by the specialized movements of or vocal organs the generate speech sound waves.
Like all sound production, speech production requires and source of energy; the source of energy for speech production is the steady stream of air that comes from the lungs as we exhale. When we breathe normally, the air stream is inaudible. To become audible, the air stream must vibrate rapidly. The vocal cords cause the air stream to vibrate.
As we talk, the vocal cords open and close rapidly, chopping up the steady air stream into a series of puffs are heard as a buzz. But, this buzz is still not speech.
To produce speech sounds, the vocal tract must change shape. During speech we continually alter the shape of the vocal track by moving the tongue and lips, etc. These movements change the acoustic properties of the vocal tract, which in turn produce the different sounds of speech.

Social Function
Generic Structure
Significant Lexicogrammatical features
To explain the processes involved in the formation of workings of natural or socio cultural phenomena.
·         A general statements to position the reader.
·         A sequenced explanation of why or how something occurs.
·         Focus in generic, non human participants.
·         Use mainly of material and relational processes.
·         Use mainly of temporal and causal circumstances and conjuctions.
·         Some use of passive voice to get them right.

7.      Discussion
Gene Splicing
Generic research has produced both exciting and frightening possibilities. Scientists are now able to create new form of life in the laboratory due to the development of gene splicing.
Argument for point
On the one hand, the ability to create life in laboratory could greatly benefit mankind.
For example, because it is very expensive to obtain insulin from natural sources, scientists have developed a method to manufacture it inexpensively in the laboratory.
Another beneficial application of gene splicing is in agriculture.
Scientists foresee the day when new paints will be developed using nitrogen from the air instead of from fertilizer. Therefore food production could be increased. In addition, entirely new plants could be developed to feed the world’s hungry people.
Argument against point
Not everyone is excited about gene splicing. However some people feel that it could have terrible consequences.
A laboratory accident, for example, might cause an epidemic of an unknown disease that could wipe out humanity.
As a result of this controversy, the government has made rules to genetic experiments. While some members of the scientific community feel that these rules are too strict, many other people feel that they are still not strict enough.

Social Function
Generic Structure
Significant Lexicogrammatical features
To present at least two points of view about an issue.
·         Issue:
-          Statement
-          Preview
·         Arguments for against or statement of differing points of view.
-          Point
-          Elaboration
·         Conclusion pr recommendation.
·         Focus on generic human and generic non human participants.
·         Use of:
-          Material processes e.g. has, produced, have developed, to feed
-          Relational procession e.g. is, could have, cause, are
-          Mental, processes e.g. feel
·         Use of comparative contrastive and consequential conjunctions
·         Reasoning expressed verbs and nouns (abstraction).
8.      Analytical Exposition
In Australia there are three levels of government, federal governments, state governments, and local governments. All of these levels of government are necessary. This is so for a number of reasons.
Argument Point
First, the federal government is necessary for the big things.
They keep the economy in order and look after things like defence.
Argument Point
Similarly, the state governments look after the middle sized things.
For example, they look after law and order, preventing things like vandalism in schools.
Argument Point
Finally, local governments look after the small things.
They look after things like collecting rubbish, otherwise everyone would have diseases.
Thus, for the reasons above we can that the three levels of governments are necessary.

Social Function
Generic Structure
Significant Lexicogrammatical features
To persuade the reader or listeners that something is the case.
·         Thesis
Positions introduces topic and indicates writer’s position.
Preview outlines the main arguments to be presented.
·         Arguments
Points: restates main arguments outlines in preview.
Elaborations: develops and supports each point/argument
·         Reiteration: restates writer’s position.
·         Focus on generic human and non human participants.
·         Use of Simple Present Tense.
·         Use of relational processes.
·         Use of internal conjunction to state arguments.
·         Reasoning through causal conjunction or nominalization.

9.      Hortatory Exposition
Country Concern
In all discussion over the removal of lead from petrol (and the atmosphere) there doesn’t seem to have been any mention of the difference between driving in the city and the country.
While I realize my leaded petrol car is pollution the air wherever I drive, I feel that when you travel through the country, where you only see another car every five to ten minutes, the problem as not as severe as when traffic is concentrated on city roads.
Those who wants to penalize order, leaded petrol vehicles and their owners don’t seem  to appreciate that, in the country, there is no public transport to fall back upon and one’s own vehicle is the only way to get about.
I feel that country people, who often have to travel huge distances to the nearest town and who already spend a great deal of money on petrol, should be treated differently to the people who live in the city.

Social Function
Generic Structure
Significant Lexicogrammatical features
To persuade the reader or listener that something should shouldn’t be the case
·         Thesis:
Announcement of issue concern.
·         Arguments:
Reasons of concern, leading to recommendation.
·         Recommendation:
Statement of what ought or ought not to happen.
·         Focus on human and non human participants except for speal er writer referring to self.
·         Use of
-          Mental processes to state with writer thinks or feel about issue, realized, felt appreciated.
-          Material processes to state to happens, e.g. polluting drive, travel, spend, should be treated.
-          Relational processes to state what is be e.g. doesn’t seem to have been, is.
-          Use of Simple Present Tense.
10.  Annecdote
Snake in the Bath
How would you like to find a snake in your bath?
A nasty one tool.
We have just moved to a new house, which been empty for so long that everything was in terrible mess. Anna and I decided we would clean the bath first, so we see to and turned on the tap.
Suddenly to my horror, a sneak’s hade appeared in the plug-hole. Then out slithered the rest of his long thin body. He twisted and turned on the slippery be tom of the bath spitting and hissing at us.
For an instant I stood there paralysed. Bottom then yelled for my husband, who luckily come running and killed the snake with the handle of a broom. Anna, who was only there at the time, was quite interested in whole business. Indeed I had to pull her out of the way she’d probably have leant over the bath to get a better to look!
We found out later that it was a black mamba, a poisonous kind a snake. It had obviously been fast asleep, curled up at the bottom of the nice warm water pipe. It must have had an awful shock when the cold came tricking down. But nothing to the shock I got. Ever since then I’ve always put the plug in firmly before running the bath water.

Social Function
Generic Structure
Significant Lexicogrammatical features
To share with other an account of an usual a musing incident.
·         Abstract signals the retelling of an unusual incident.
·         Orientation sets the scate.
·         Crisis provides details of the unusual incident.
·         Reaction to crisis.
·         Coda optional reflection on or evaluation of the incident.
·         Use of exclamations, rhetorical questions and intensifiers (really, very, quite etc) or point up the significance of the events.
·         Use of material processes to tell want happened.
·         Use of temporal conjunction.

11.  Spoof
Penguin in the Park
Once a man was walking in the park when a penguin crossed.
Event 1
He took him to a policeman and said, “I have just found this penguin. What should I do?” The police replied, “Take him to the zoo”.
Event 2
The next day the policeman saw same man in the same park and the man was still carrying the penguin with him. The policeman was rather surprised and walked up to the man and asked, “Why are you still carrying the penguin about? Didn’t you take it to the zoo?”. “I certainly did,” replied the man.
“And it was a great idea because he really enjoyed it, so today I’m taking him to the movies.”

Note: the ‘twist’ in this particular text is related to the circumstances of place the penguin is taken to and to the man’s misinterpretation of the policeman’s (unspoken) reason for taking the penguin to the zoo.

12.  Review
Private Lives Sparkle
Since the first production of ‘Private Lives’ in 1930, with theatre’s two leading sophisticates Noel Coward and Gertrude Lawrence in the leads, the play was tended to be seen as a vehicles for stars.
QUT Academy of the art’ production boasted no ‘stars’, but certainly fielded potential stars in a sparkling performance that brought out just how fine a piece of craftsmanship Coward’s play is.
More then 60 years later what new could be deduced from so familiar of them?
Director Rod wiss ‘or’s highly perceptive approach went beyond the glittery surface of Witty banter to the darker implication beneath.
Interpretative recount
With the shifting of attitudes to social values, it became clear that victor and Siby were potentially the more admirable of the couples, with standards better adjusted than the volatile and self indulgent Elyot and Amanda.
The we was there, dexteronsiy pig-ponged to and fro by a vibrant Amanda (Catherine Jones) and a suave Elyot (Daniel Kealy).
Julie Eckersley’s Sibyl was a delightful creation and Philip came on Smith’s more serious playing was just right for Victor. Jodle Levesconte was a superb French maid. James Maclean’s set a captured the Thirties atmosphere with many subtle touches.
Evaluative summation
All involved deserve the highest prase.

Social Function
Generic Structure
Significant Lexicogrammatical features
To critique an art work, event for a public audience.

Such works of art include movies, TV shows, books, plays, operas, recordings, exhibitions, concerts, and ballets.
·         Orientation: places the work in its general and particular context, often by comparing it with others of its kind of through analogue with a non art object or event.
·         Interpretive recount summaries the plot and/or provides an account of how interviewed rendition of the work came into being is optional, but if present, often recuisive.
·         Evaluation: provides an evaluation of the work and/or its performance or production; is usually recursive.
·         Evaluative summation: provides a kind of puck line which sums up the review’s opinion of the art event as a whole is optional.
·         Focus on particular participants.
·         Direct expression is options through use of Attitudinal Ephitets in nominal groups; qualitative Attributes and Affective Mental Processes.
·         Use of elaborating and extending clause and group complexes to package the information.
·         Use of metaphorical language (e.g. the wit was there, dexterously ping ponged to and fro…).
13.  Procedure
The Hole Game
Materials needed
Two players.
One marble for person.
A hole in ground.
A line (distance) to start from.
Method (step)
1.      First you must dub (click marbles together).
2.      Then you must check that marbles are in good condition are nearly worth the same value.
-          Next, you must dig a hole in the ground and draw a line a far distance a way from the hole.
-          The first player carefully throws his or her marble towards the hole.
-          Then the second player tries to throw his or her marble closed or the hole than his or her opponent.
-          The player whose marble is closet to the hole than his or her opponent.
-          The player whose marble is closet to the hole tries to flick his or her marble into the hole. If successful, this player tries to flick his or her opponent’s marble into the hole.

The person flicking the last marble into the hole wins and gets to keep both marbles.

Social Function
Generic Structure
Significant Lexicogrammatical features
To describe how something is accomplished through a sequence of actions or steps.
·         Goal.
·         Materials (not required for all procedural texts).
·         Step 1-n (l.e  Goal followed by a series of steps oriented to achieving the goal.
·         Focus on generalized human agents.
·         Use of Simple Present Tense, often imperatives.
·         Use mainly the temporal conjunctions (or numbering to indicate sequence).
·         Use mainly of Material processes.

Sumber: SSC kelas XII Smt 2

4 komentar:

  1. oke banget nih postingnya,bisa menambah wawasan kita semua.

  2. makasih ilmunya xD ... untuk yang bagian hortatory exposition

  3. Banyak hal yang didapat dengan cara belara bahasa Inggris berbasi teks begini, disamping pengetahuan grammar structure juga akan mendapat pengetahuan baru seperti apa yang ada didalam teks tersebut. Itu hanya bisa didapat kalau jenis teks yang dipelajari memang fungsional


komen o yo rek,, *suwun